With larger herds, identification and drafting of individuals are major tasks. Automatic drafting is not routinely installed on many dairy farms. Electronic tongue technology gives more advantage for farmers for many aspects [ 39 ]. Electronic tongue used potentiometric chemical sensors. An array comprised sensors with plasticized PVC membranes with cross-sensitivity to inorganic and organic cations and anions, chalcogenide glass sensors, chloride-, potassium- and sodium-selective electrodes, and glass pH electrode. Many biosensor search studies for mastitis diagnosis continue [ 40 ].
There are a lot of sensors which are used for good quality milk productions. Faster results have been achieved with the use of microchip technologies. In addition, with these technologies, you are ready to diagnose more successful mastitis with more effective tests and results with wider angle, more accurate results. All these each tests provide rapid mastitis detection.
Milk conductivity and appearance of milk is used commonly on the farms. But other methods give another early mastitis detection for the fast and accurate decision for cure disease.
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A number of other methods using visible and other light spectra have shown promise in detecting milk abnormalities and measuring various components of milk [ 39 ]. But De Mol and Ouweltjes [ 57 ] reported that the single and combined measures of 29, milkings to detect clinical mastitis and concluded that early warning is not reliable with sensors and software currently on the market.
Automatic milking systems give many information about milk production, milking speed, milk acidity, milk conductivity etc.
But radio-frequency identification provide more possibilities for improving the reliability of collecting data. Computer programmer designed many software for make best option for farmer to ration preparation. Optimal feeding programs can be done for advanced options such as live weight, racing, lactation period and animal feed stock information. These programs use data from the National Research Council in animal feed and feed content. Various systems for automated animal feeding will be used in many big dairy farms to get better production. They will comprise complete systems include each stage of feeding, feed preparation, mixing equipment and the installations for distributing feed.
The Automation systems as simple consists of a control panel, a programmable command manager, a scale, a communication interface and finally all the needed equipment to organize the feeding process and feed provision to the animal of each age groups. Computer-controlled calf feeders have many advantages over traditional calf feeding methods. Calves carry a transponder, and it is possible to follow the daily intake of individual calves [ 39 ]. These systems can be combined with automatic weighing and health observation system for calf welfare. Calves reared in a group-pen had fewer days of medication than calves in hutches [ 60 ] fed milk-replacer from buckets twice a day.
Electronic Concentrate Feeding system ensures that each cow is supplied with the exact ration of feed at the exact right time. The Belt Feeder feed distributor is the ideal introduction to the concept of automatic feed supply systems. Small, flexible, economical — the combination of a conveyor belt and sliding scraper. These are reported that the stationary systems such as conveyor belts and mobile systems such as self-propelled or rail guided feeder wagons. In addition to feeding system automation approaches, rumen activity sensors are very popular innovative techniques for cattle farmers to reduce metabolic disorders.
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When the sensitive cows exhibit increasing acidosis, this allows a farmer to adjust feeding to prevent major problems [ 62 ]. Many electronic sensors can be used for rumen pH and rumen temperature of cattle. The rumination activity is a good indicator of cattle health condition. A certain level of well being is a prerequisite for rumination [ 64 ] excitement and stress [ 65 ], states of anxiety [ 66 ] and various diseases [ 67 , 68 ] inhibit rumination [ 69 ].
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Another sensor used for collecting data for cow jaw movement to estimate chewing activity. This sensor works on the principle that the changing pressure of the animal is not detected during opening and closing of the mouth. The big hazard for animal production is to disease outbreak. The disease can spread quickly in the confined conditions. Many diseases has specific signals for detection, animals to look for signs of stress, disease, and damage caused by many agents. They alert staff or, potentially, other systems to find the affected animals and identify them report to manger before the problem spreads.
An animal disease has serious economic implications on farm productivity. The production, product quality, product composition, body condition, and behavior provide a good indication for the health status of animals. By closely monitoring normal pattern changes, the farmers ensure animal health status. Many firms provided programs developed and provided by data collection and analysis products for monitoring animal behavior for the best early detection system.
To monitor the health conditions of each cow the sensors are mounted on the cow. Sensor networks consist of several tiny, low price devices and are logically self-organizing ad hoc systems. The role of the sensor network is monitoring the health parameters of animals, gather and convey the information to other sink nodes. Sensors that collect data such as temperature, pH, etc. Many new sensor technologies that will be useful in animal health and behavior are developed [ 70 , 71 ].
Another sensor usage results of an experiment in which a temperature sensor built into a bolus were placed in the rumen of a cow [ 68 , 72 , 73 ]. On-farm scoring of behavioral indicators of animal welfare is challenging but the increasing availability of low cost technology now makes automated monitoring of animal behavior feasible. Furthermore, behavioral measures, such as the occurrence of aggression or stereotypic behavior, are important indicators of welfare problems.
Including behavioral-based welfare criteria is, therefore, essential for an overall welfare assessment. Results of oestrus detection varied depending on the many factor such as threshold value, cow number, barn style, and the statistical method for data analysis. As a result of satisfying oestrus detection and conception rates, purchase and maintenance costs of the oestrus detection system should charge off. A number of both inexpensive to expensive aids and technologies are available to meet some but not all of these criteria [ 79 ]. Traditionally, oestrus detection is performed by visual observation of the dairy herd in many countries but this procedure particularly difficult on large dairy farms [ 80 ] because of short observation periods during feeding and milking.
As a result of technical progress in monitoring cows using computers, automatic oestrus detection has become possible. In many studies, different traits have been analyzed for utilization in automatic oestrus detection. The electronic systems are an electronic device that detects cows that stand to be mounted by a herd mate and provides a continuous monitoring of activity [ 85 ], radiotelemetry is a computerized estrus detection devices. Also patches give another possibilities using mounting activity of cows. I a cow mount another cow then he transmitter is depressed and a signal sent to a receiver.
During this time, date, time and duration of the mount stored and send to the main computer. On computer all these data evaluated and prepared for final decision. Although costs associated with computerized estrous detection are higher than other methods, the benefits may pay off with increased estrous detection accuracy. Estrus detection errors can result huge economic loses for dairy farms. Using detection aids provide advantages because of the prevention of these losses [ 85 ].
Pedometers are used to detect the estrus by storing past physical activity the current physical activity and comparing it previous activity data.
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After analyzing data programs prepare report for cow which is activity accepted as estrus. Beeper or flashing light is also use for alerts the farmer for control this cows [ 79 ]. Pedometers also used for estrus detection attached to the leg of the cow to measure the amount of her activity over a unit time span. Many pedometric systems are commercially available in the market. Also standing activity systems is commercially available in the markets. Standing activity activated by the mounting cow.
Radio signal picked up by receiver and relayed to a buffer and a personal computer to analyzing of data.
This system record cows number, standing time, date and duration to evaluation on time [ 79 ]. The Mount Count manual version of the Heat Watch system is also available in the markets at more low price which is not required a computer or software to process and display the data. One aid is a pressure sensitive device mounted on the back of each cow, which can be triggered when the cow stands for mounting.
Pressure sensitive device is programmed when a certain number of valid mounts have been recorded a light give signals. The second one is effective aids for detecting standing estrus is a marker or teaser animal.
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Marker animals are worn marking device. When an animal in standing estrus is mounted by the marker animal, the chin-ball marker will rub against the animal in standing estrus, leaving marks on her back and rump.
Mounting and standing activity are effective methods for estrus detection. There are many other methods available on the system such as cervical mucus, vaginal characteristics, temperature, blood flow, and hormone changes in blood and milk. But these methods not applicable on the farm level. Milk progesterone level is o good criteria for stage of the cycle or pregnancy.
So it can be used for diagnose problem cows in herd [ 87 ]. The behavior meter continuously records the animal behavior for many purposes lying time, lying bouts and the activity of the individual cows. The cow-behavior enables animal welfare assessment in different environmental conditions and stress situations, as well as reproductive and health status [ 28 ]. Pregnancy check: Pregnancy diagnosis is one of the most important factors to get ideal calving interval. The most common methods are rectal and transrectal ultrasonography of the reproductive tract.
Both procedures are required training and time. Estrone sulfate, progesterone and glycoproteins are used for indicators of pregnancy in cattle [ 8 , 88 , 90 ]. Estrone sulfate is a conjugated steroid product of estrone, is produced by the fetus and as such offer high specificity.